Research and development expenditure 1)

We predict that research and development spending will rise to between €85 million and €90 million, of which approximately €15 million to €20 million will be capitalised. This is because of new engine projects and activities relating to the E-DEUTZ strategy that will lead to the expansion of our engine portfolio.

1) Research and development expenditure constitutes actual spending on R&D projects. It differs from the research and development costs recognised in the income statement in that development expenditure that can be capitalised is deducted and amortisation on completed development projects is added.